Cytotoxic Effects of Zinc Oxide on Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts In Vitro
Zinc oxide (ZnO) has been widely used in wound dressing, food additive and root canal filling material owing to its antibacterial and antifungal properties. This study describes the potential cytotoxic effects of ZnO on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLF) in vitro. ZnO was characterized using BET (Braun-Emmet-Teller) and DLS (dynamic light scattering) analyses. The hPDLFs were treated with 0.1, 1, 10, 50 and 100 μg/mL of ZnO for 6 h, 24 h and 48 h durations. After exposure to ZnO, phase contrast microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), mitochondrial function (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were used to evaluate cell morphology, particle uptake, cell viability and membrane leakage. In addition, real time cell responses to ZnO exposure were monitored by impedance measurements. Results indicated that ZnO exposure caused toxic effect in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared with the control, especially at 50 and 100 μg/mL.
Cytotoxicity; Zinc oxide; Periodontal ligament fibroblasts; impedance; In vitro toxicity assays
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