The presence of Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacteriaceae spp. and Ochratoxin-A in Infant Rice-based formula and milled rice products

  • Sibel Ozcakmak Provincial Directorate of Agriculture and Livestock, Samsun, Türkiye
  • Asya Cetinkaya Kafkas University, Department of Food Engineering, Kars, Turkey


Rice based infant foods with reason poor hygienic conditions could be caused with fungi, opportunistic pathogens or hygiene indicator bacteria. In this study, samples of three different commercial Infant Rice-based formulae with four samples (IRF), nine milled rice (MR) samples were searched for Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacteriaceae spp. and Ochratoxin-A (OTA). The presence of C. sakazakii and Enterobacteriaceae spp. was detected using ISO/TS 22964/IDF/RM 210 and method, respectively. A developed method using OCHRAPREP® (REFN: A9-P14.V4) in conjunction with HPLC described by AOAC 2000.003 was used with slight modifications of the purification and HPLC conditions and with another confirmation method for OTA. The limit of quantities measurement was 1.286 μg/kg. C. sakazakii was not found in any samples. Enterobacteriaceae spp. was determined aove the legal limits (between 2.6x102 and 2.8x104 kob/g, average 3.46x104) in four samples (30.77%). OTA was detected by one IRF with milk product sample with 0.60 µg/kg (7.69%).


Khellin; Khellinone; Ammi visnaga L.; Claisen Schmidt condensation; Bis-chalcone

DOI: 10.17350/HJSE19030000069

Full Text: page_white_acrobat.png


Download data is not yet available.


1. Heuvelink AE, Kodde FD, Zwartkruis-Nahuis JTM, de Boer E. 2001. Enterobacter sakazakii in melkpoeder. Keuringsdienst van Waren Oost. Project number OT 0110.

2. Himelright I, Harris E, Lorch V, Anderson M, Jones T, Craig A, Kuehnert M, Forster T, Arduino M, Jensen B, Jernigan D. Enterobacter sakazakii infections associated with the use of powdered infant formula-Tennessee. 2001. Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report 51 (2002) 298–300.

3. Lombaert GA, Pellaers P, Roscoe V, Mankotia M, Neil R, Scott PM. Mycotoxins in infant cereal foods from the Canadian retail market. Food Additives and Contaminants 20 (2003) 494–504.

4. Cottyne B, Regalado E, Lanoot B, De Cleene M, Mew TW, Swings J. Bacterial populations associated with rice seed in the tropical environment. Phytopathology 91 (2001) 282– 292.

5. Iversen C, Lane M, Forsythe SJ. The growth profile, thermotolerance and biofilm formation of
Enterobacter sakazakii grown in infant formula milk. Letters in Applied Microbiology 38 (2004) 378–382.

6. Gurtler JB, Kornacki JL, Beuchat LR. Enterobacter sakazakii: a coliform of increased concern to infant health.
International Journal of Food Microbiology 104 (2005) 1–34.

7. Wolff J. Ochratoxin A in cereals and cereal products. Archivfu ̈r Lebensmittelhygiene 51 (2000) 85–88.

8. Beretta B, De Dominico R, Gaiaschi A, Ballabio C, Galli CL, Gigliotti C, Restani P. Ochratoxin A in cereal-based baby foods: occurrence and safety evaluation. Food Additives and Contaminants 19 (2002) 70–75.

9. Fowler M. Flour mill contamination.
mill contamination.aspx?cck=1 (2013).

10. Iversen C, Forsythe S. Risk profile of Enterobacter sakazakii, an emergent pathogen associated with infant milk formula. Trends in Food Science and Technology 14 (2003) 443-454.

11. Tanaka K, Sago Y, Zheng Y, Nakagawa H, Kushiro M. Mycotoxins in rice. International Journal of Food Microbiology 119 (2007) 59-66.

12. Richards GM, Gurtler JB, Beuchat LR. Survival and growth of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant rice cereal reconstituted with water, milk, liquid infant formula, or apple juice. Journal of Applied Microbiology 99 (2005) 844–850.

13. Iversen C, Forsythe SJ. Isolation of Enterobacter sakazakii and other Enterobacteriaceae from powdered infant milk and related products. Journal of Food Microbiology 21 (2004) 771–777.

14. Simmons BP, Gelfand MS, Haas M, Metts L, Ferguson J. 1989. Enterobacter sakazakii infections in neonates associated with intrinsic contamination of a powdered infant formula. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 10: 398–401.

15. FAO/WHO. Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization of the United Nations.
Enterobacter sakazakii and Salmonella in powdered infant formula: meeting report. / sakazakii_salmonella.pdf. (2006).

16. EC. Commission Regulation No 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs

17. TFC. Turkish Food Codex Microbiological Criteria Regulation. (2011).

18. ISO/TS 22964 IDF/RM 210. Technical specification: Milk and milk products-Detection of
Enterobacter sakazakii . First Edition 2006-02-01.

19. BS ISO 21528-2: British Standard. Microbiology of food and animal feding stuffs-Horizontal methods for the detection and enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae -Part 2: Colony- count method. 2004.

20. Anonymous. Application note for Cereal Ochratoxin A Extraction Method. R-Biopharm Rhone Ltd. Ref N:A-9 P14.V4, Date: May 2009.

21. Baylis C, Uyttendaele M, Joosten H, Davies A. The Enterobacteriaceae and their significance to the Food Industry. Printed in Belgium D/2011/10.996/30 ISBN 9789078637332 (2011).

22. Nazarowec-White M, Farber JM. Incidence, survival and growth of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant formula. Journal of Food Protection 60 (1997) 226-230.

23. FAO. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States. Good hygiene practices and HACCP. November, 2017.

24. Larry R, Beuchat A, Hoikyung KB, Joshua B, Gurtler C, Li- Chun L, Jee-Hoon R, Glenner MR. Cronobacter sakazakii in foods and factors affecting its survival, growth, and inactivation. International Journal of Food Microbiology 2009 (136) 204–213.

25. Scott PM. Penicillium and Aspergillus toxins. Mycotoxins in Grain: Compounds Other than Aflatoxin, edited by J. D. Miller and H. L. Trenholm (St Paul: Eagan), 1994 (261-285).

26. Speijers GJA, Van Egmond HP. Worldwide ochratoxin A levels in food and feeds. Human Ochratoxicosis and its Pathologies. Colloque INSERM, edited by E. E. Creppy, M. Castegnaro and G. Dirheimer (Montrouge, France: John Libbey Eurotext Ltd). 1993 (231) 85-100.
How to Cite
Ozcakmak, S., & Cetinkaya, A. (2018). The presence of Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacteriaceae spp. and Ochratoxin-A in Infant Rice-based formula and milled rice products. Hittite Journal of Science & Engineering, 5(2), 85-90. Retrieved from