Inventory of Large Mammal Species in the Ilgaz Mountains (Çankırı): A Major Ecological Corridor in Anatolia


In order to understand the processes engendered by different faunal elements in natural systems, and to plan how such systems should be managed and conserved, it is essential to start by determining the presence of those faunal elements, even large mammals. The entire range of North Anatolian Mountains provides suitable sheltering and feeding habitats for large mammals. The region stretching between Köroğlu Mountains (west) and Ilgaz Mountains (east) is one of the most important Anatolia’s wildlife corridors. We located and identified the species of large mammals in the Ilgaz Mountains, as well as specific habitats used by them. Field studies carried out in this region during April-August 2017 resulted in 180 records of nine different species of large mammals: Lepus europaeus, Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Vulpes vulpes, Lynx lynx, Meles meles, Sus scrofa, Cervus elaphus and Capreolus capreolus. To obtain those records took 621 days of studying with camera traps. Among those species, European hare was the most frequently recorded herbivore (101), and brown bear was the most frequently recorded carnivore (19). Both hare and roe deer displayed clustered distribution patterns in the region. The analysis of our records showed that lynx, boar, and fox were strictly nocturnal; whereas hare and wolf were predominantly nocturnal. We also obtained records of the cubs of many large mammal species (bear, lynx, boar, red deer, roe deer) although we did not encounter any large mammal nests during the study.


Mammal, Camera trap, Çankırı, Ilgaz, Anatolia.

DOI: 10.17350/HJSE19030000176

Full Text: page_white_acrobat.png


Download data is not yet available.


1. Chiarello AG. Density and population size of mammals in
remnants of Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Conservation Biology 14, no.
6 (2000) 1649–1657.

2. Gordon IJ. Restoring the functions of grazed ecosystems, in: Danell
K, Bergström R, Duncan P, Pastor J (Eds.). Large herbivore ecology,
ecosystem dynamics and conservation, Cambridge University
Press, New York, pp. 449–467, 2006.

3. Sinclair ARE, Mduma S, Brashares JS. Patterns of predation in a
diverse predator – prey system. Nature 425 (2003) 288–290.

4. Dalerum F, Somers MJ, Kunkel KE, Cameron EZ. The potential for
large carnivores to act as biodiversity surrogates in southern Africa.
Biodiversity and Conservation 17, no. 12 (2008) 2939–2949.

5. Rocha EC, Brito D, Silva PM, Silva J, Bernardo PVS, Leandro J.
Effects of habitat fragmentation on the persistence of medium and
large mammal species in the Brazilian Savanna of Goiás State. Biota
Neotropica 18, no. 3 (2018) e20170483.

6. Cheynea SM, Sastramidjaja WJ, Muhalir, Rayadin Y, Macdonald
DW. Mammalian communities as indicators of disturbance across
Indonesian Borneo. Global Ecology and Conservation 7 (2016)

7. Andrade-Núñez MJ, Mitchell Aide T. Effects of habitat and
landscape characteristics on medium and large mammal species
richness and composition in northern Uruguay. Zoologia 27, no. 6
(2010) 909–917.

8. Can ÖE, Togan I. Camera trapping of large mammals in Yenice
Forest, Turkey: local information versus camera traps. Oryx 43, no.
3 (2009) 427–430.

9. Akman Y, Yurdakulol Y, Demirörs M. The vegetation of the Ilgaz
Mountains. Ecologia Mediterranea IX, no. 2 (1983) 137-165.

10. Akman Y. İklim ve Biyoiklim, Palma Yayın Dağıtım, Ankara, 1990.

11. T.C. Çankırı Valiliği Çevre ve Şehircilik İl Müdürlüğü. Çankırı İli
2016 Yılı Çevre Durum Raporu, Çankırı, 2017.

12. Dillon A, Kelly MJ. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in Belize: the
impact of trap spacing and distance moved on density estimates.
Oryx 41, no. 4 (2007) 469–477.

13. Kelly MJ. Design, evaluate, and refine: camera trap studies for
elusive species. Animal Conservation 11 (2008) 182–184.

14. Meek PD, Ballard G, Claridge A, Kays R, Moseby K, O’Brien T.
Recommended guiding principles for reporting on camera trapping
research. Biodiversity and Conservation 23, no. 9 (2014) 2321–2343.

15. Bowkett AE, Rovero F, Marshall AR. The use of camera trap data to
model habitat use by antelope species in the Udzungwa Mountain
forests, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology 46, no. 4 (2007) 479–

16. Rovero F, Marshall AR. Camera trapping photographic rate as an
index of density in forest ungulates. Journal of Applied Ecology 46,
no. 5 (2009) 1011–1017.

17. Sanderson JG. Camera phototrapping monitoring protocol, The
Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Initiative,
The Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation
International, Washington, DC, pp. 18, 2004.

18. Demirsoy A. Türkiye Omurgalıları: Memeliler, Çevre Bakanlığı,
Çevre Koruma Genel Müdürlüğü, Meteksan A.Ş., Ankara, pp. 292,

19. Aulagnier S, Haffner F, Mitchell-Jones AJ, Moutou F, Zima J.
Mammals of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, Delachaux
et Niestle SA, Paris, pp. 272, 2008.

20. Jobin A, Molinari P, Breitenmoser U. Prey spectrum, prey
preference and consumption rates of Eurasian lynx in the Swiss Jura
Mountains. Acta Theriologica 45, no. 2 (2000) 243–252.

21. Fedriani JM, Palomares F, Delibes M. Niche relations among three
sympatric Mediterranean carnivores. Oecologia 121, no.1 (1999)

22. Jedrzejewska W, Jedrzejewska B, Okarma H, Schmidt K, Zub K,
Musiani M. Prey selection and predation by wolves in Białowieza
Primeval Forest, Poland. Journal of Mammalogy 81, no.1 (2000)

23. Tobler MW, Carrillo-Percastegui SE, Leite Pitman R, Mares
R, Powell G. An evaluation of camera traps for inventorying
large and medium sized terrestrial rainforest mammals. Animal
Conservation 11, no. 3 (2008) 169–178.

24. Jedrzejewski W, Schmidt K, Milkowski L, Jedrzejewska B,
Okarma H. Foraging by lynx and its role in ungulate mortality:
the local (Bialowieza Forest) and the Palearctic viewpoints. Acta
Theriologica 38, no. 4 (1993) 385–403.

25. Mengüllüoğlu D, Ambarlı H, Berger A, Hofer H. Foraging ecology
of Eurasian lynx populations in southwest Asia: Conservation
implications for a diet specialist. Ecology and Evolution 8, no. 6
(2018) 9451–9463.

26. Soyumert A, Ertürk A, Tavşanoğlu Ç. The importance of
lagomorphs for the Eurasian lynx in Western Asia: Results from a
large scale camera-trapping survey in Turkey. Mammalian Biology
95 (2019) 18-25.

27. Theuerkauf J, Jedrzejewski W, Schmidt K, Okarma H, Ruczynski
I, Sniezko S, Gula R. Daily patterns and duration of wolf activity
in the Białowieza Forest, Poland. Journal of Mammalogy 84, no.1
(2003) 243–253.
How to Cite
Akbaba, B., & Bulut, S. (2020). Inventory of Large Mammal Species in the Ilgaz Mountains (Çankırı): A Major Ecological Corridor in Anatolia. Hittite Journal of Science & Engineering, 7(1), 73-80. Retrieved from